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Indigenous Immigrants and Refugees in the North American Borderlands by Brenden W. Rensink, Texas A&M Press, 2018

Chapter 9, Note 48 (pages 190 and 267)

Newly acquainted with their plight, Baker wrote to Linderman, imploring, “Use your influence and that of your friends,” urging that a law be passed to settle the landless Chippewas and Crees. (190)

Chapter 9, Note 48 . . . for sources and discussion of Chippewa and Cree conditions during late 1912 and early 1913. (p. 267)

Evidence of Linderman’s attempts to meet Baker’s appeal to influence friends and colleagues are many. It was by his influence that Charles Russell wrote to U.S. Senator Henry Myers in support of Linderman’s efforts. Of the anti-settlement efforts of Senator Dixon, Russell offered this colorful commentary, “I understand that Senator Dixon is fighting the Indian bill. Mr. Dixon has the earmarks of a man that was never hungry in his life. I would like to lead the Senator to the Chippewa camp right now with the thermometer ranging from 10 to 30 degrees below zero, and show him what real starvation meant. And if he has anything under his hide like a heart he would change his talk.”

Multiple sources confirm the wretched and dangerous conditions Chippewas and Crees faced over the winter of 1912-13. Some remained at Fort Harrison where they had been offered refuge during the winter. Others persisted on the Blackfeet Reservation. A number frequented Butte, Helena and Great Falls. The remainder stayed north, circulating around the Havre and Fort Assiniboine region.


  • Charles Russell to Henry L, Myers, January 11, 1913, Linderman Papers, MSHS..
  • T. Gibson to Frank B. Linderman, October 2, 1912, Linderman Papers, MSHS.
  • “Indians Under Flag of Truce,” Helena Daily Record, October 28, 1912.
  • “Chronology of Chief Events in Montana During the Year: October 28,” Anaconda Standard, December 29, 1912.
  • “Again the Crees,” Anaconda Standard, November 20, 1912.
  • “Rocky Boy Band to be Guests of Government,” Anaconda Standard, November 24, 1912.
  • “Rocky Boy Will Winter in Helena,” Cut Bank Pioneer Press, November 29, 1912.
  • Colonel Wilson to Frank B. Linderman, December 17, 1912.
  • Rocky Boy to Frank B. Linderman, January 6, 1913, Frank. B. Linderman Papers, MSHS.