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Indigenous Immigrants and Refugees in the North American Borderlands by Brenden W. Rensink, Texas A&M Press, 2018

Chapter 8, Note 26 (pages 170 and 260)

For the remainder of 1901 and extending into 1904, various groups voiced desires to eject Crees from the state. (p. 170)

Chapter 8, Note 26 . . . for sources and discussion of positive and negative press coverage in Montana.

In early 1902, the League of American Sportsmen, frustrated with supposed Cree depletion of game, tailed Cree movements and circulated petitions for their removal. By late spring, many anticipated that the Governor and troops at Fort Assiniboine momentarily would force Crees north of the line. Lacking federal funding, however, they took little action. By late 1903, a number of plans had been proposed and publicly debated with little progress towards a solution. Enough noise had been made, however, that neighboring states like Idaho and Washington feared that Cree exiles may attempt to settle among them.


  • “To Deport the Crees,” Havre Plaindealer, May 3, 1902.
  • “Crees Must Move On,” Montanian and Chronicle, May 9, 1902.
  • “Want Crees Removed,” Havre Plaindealer, November 11, 1902.
  • “Is Costing Money,” Havre Plaindealer, November 15, 1902.
  • “Deporting the Crees,” Great Falls Tribune, January 3, 1903.
  • “Canada Says Crees Must be Deported by United States, Reservation Awaits Them,” Anaconda Standard, January 24, 1903.
  • “Mr. Reiser Investigates,” Havre Plaindealer, January 10, 1903.
  • “Butte Current Notes,” September 26, 1903.
  • “Crees Move Along,” Havre Plaindealer, January 3, 1903.
  • “Crees Are With Us,” Havre Plaindealer, November 7, 1903.
  • “Would Corral Crees,” Havre Plaindealer, November 11, 1903.
  • “Coast Towns are Excited,” Kalispell Bee (MT), January 6, 1903, 2.
  • Helena Daily Independent, January 28, 1904.