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Indigenous Immigrants and Refugees in the North American Borderlands by Brenden W. Rensink, Texas A&M Press, 2018

Chapter 7, Note 80 (pages 161 and 259)

However, Yaqui dances were usually exoticized by the mass media, and the dances’ “foreign” origins were referenced. Indeed, most newspaper reports  concerning anything Yaqui-related made note of Yaquis’ origins outside the United States. (p. 161)

Chapter 7, Note 80 . . . Occasional pieces in the Arizona press described museum exhibits on Yaqui history and ethnology, Yaqui participation in the armed  services, and random personal interest stories concerning Yaqui individuals. All reinforced the conception of Yaquis as an explicitly foreign presence in the United States . . . for sources and discussion. (p. 259)

A common thread Yaqui foreignness ran through much of their media coverage. This took many forms. Occasional pieces in the Arizona press described Museum exhibits on Yaqui history and ethnology, often emphasizing their exotic character.[1] Edward Spicer’s activity in presenting Yaqui history to the public certainly broaden the type of coverage, but may not have changed essential views that Yaquis were foreign.[2] In addition, a variety of special-interest stories ran featuring Yaqui subjects.[3] Even in the case of WWII-era Yaquis offering their services in protecting the U.S-Mexican border from invasion, their foreign identity loomed heavy in all reports. [4]

[1] “State Museum Open House to be held Apr. 12,” Tucson Daily Citizen, April 7, 1944, 3; “Museum Plans Exhibit of Photographs,” Tucson Daily Citizen, December 10, 1945, 16; “Several Gifts Presented to Museum,” Tucson Daily Citizen, December 28, 1945, 6; “Indian Art is Received at State Museum,” Tucson Daily Citizen, December 29, 1945, 3; and “New Indian Exhibit Set,” Tucson Daily Citizen, January 5, 1951.

[2] Edward Spicer, “Cultural Interactions in Southwestern United States: The Yaquis of Southern Arizona,” paper presented to the “Race and Culture Contact Seminar,” University of Chicago, Fall 1937, Spicer Papers, ASM, Subgroup 8, Box 2, Folder 87; Edward Spicer, “The Story of the Yaqui Indians,” transcript from University of Arizona Radio Program, November 11, 1940, Spicer Papers, ASM, Subgroup 8, Box 2, Folder 81; Edward Spicer,, “The Yaquis of Arizona,” The Kiva 5 (March, 1940): 21-24; “Life Depicted Among Yaquis: U.S. Professor-Student Present Sympathetic Portrayal of Tribe,” Arizona Daily Star, March 18, 1941; and “Studies Yaqui Sonora Village,” Tucson Daily Citizen, May 27, 1947, 7.

[3] “Yaqui Indians Pray for Life of White Woman,” Corpus Christi Times, October 14, 1937 (this report was syndicated in a variety of Texas newspapers); “Yaqui Woman, 107, Succumbs,” Arizona Republic (Phoenix), September 4, 1938, 10; “Alien 111 Years Old Registers in Arizona,” Arizona Republican, October 24, 1940; “Culture of Yaquis Being Revitalized,” Tucson Daily Citizen, September 23, 1947, 4; Bob Brooks, “Pascua Indians Alert Students,” Tucson Daily Citizen, November 21, 1945, 14; “Flu Epidemic Keeps Pupils, Workers Home,” Tucson Daily Citizen, December 5, 1945, 1; “Yaqui Indians to Sing Carols in Park Here,” Tucson Daily Citizen, December 11, 1945, 7; “Navajo Conditions Shock Committee,” Tucson Daily Citizen, December 8, 1947 (This report made light of how Navajo were, unbelievably, even worse off than the Yaquis); “Three Quizzed about Murder,” Tucson Daily Citizen, January 13, 1849; and “Mrs. Thayer,” Tucson Daily Citizen, October 18, 1952, 10.

[4] “Yaquis will Form U.S. Army Unit,” Arizona Republic, October 18, 1940; Bernice Cosulich, “Yaquis Offer Military Aid to U.S. – Their Benefactor,” Arizona Daily Star, October 18, 1940; “Yaqui Chief Forms Company to Stem Invasion of Border,” Syracuse Herald Journal, October 18, 1940; “Yaquis Ready to Defend U.S.,” San Antonio Express, October 18, 1940, 1; “Indians Gird for Invasion,” Salt Lake Tribune, October 19, 1940, 2; “Yaquis Will Fight For Adopted Land,” The Daily Mail (Hagerstown, MD), October 18, 1940, 1; and “Indians Ready for Invasion,” Kingsport Times (Tennessee), October 20, 1940.