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Indigenous Immigrants and Refugees in the North American Borderlands by Brenden W. Rensink, Texas A&M Press, 2018

Chapter 3, Note 41 (pages 61 and 235)

Yaquis would later recall the era with horror. Mexico’s “Campaña sin Igual [Unparalleled Campaign]” against Cajeme’s forces paled in comparison to what those remained in Yaquimi suffered: “deportations, murders of women and children . . . the horrific butchery of adults and children, the persecution . . . torture, theft and abuse.” (p. 60-61)

…for sources and discussion of concurrent persecution of neighboring Mayos. (p. 235)

It should be noted that Yaqui’s Mayo neighbors also faced deportation during this era, though under strikingly different circumstances. In many ways, they had suffered in tandem with Yaquis as their Sonoran neighbors repeatedly bucked against Mexican rule, but Mexican policy concerning them was only occasionally linked directly to their Yaqui counterparts. In the early 1890’s, Mayos turned towards messianism, rather than direct resistance, to save them from Mexican persecution. According to Edward Spicer, Mayo prophets and Saints viewed as disruptive to regional order were summarily rounded up and deported Mayo religious leaders to forced labor in Baja California mines. The influential Saint Teresa was exiled to Tumacácori, across the line in the United States. Mayo and Yaqui followers of Teresa Urrea remained in the Tumacácori-Nogales region after she moved to Clifton, Arizona. These individuals were implicated in the aforementioned Yaqui attacks on Nogales in August of 1896.


  • Edward Spicer, The Yaquis: A Cultural History (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980), 149.
  • “Movements of the Yaquis at Nogales, Arizona: They Worry Settlers,” Salt Lake Herald., August 14, 1896, 7.
  • “Mexico Wants Santa Teresa,” San Francisco Call, August 19, 1896, 3.
  • Francisco P. Troncoso, Las Guerras con las Tribus Yaqui y Mayo del Estado de Sonora (Mexico City: Tipografía del Departmento de Estado Mayor, 1905), 196-199.
  • Edward Spicer to Raymond Cross, October 27, 1977, Spicer Papers, ASM, Subgroup 6. Box 1, Folder 8.