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Indigenous Immigrants and Refugees in the North American Borderlands by Brenden W. Rensink, Texas A&M Press, 2018

Chapter 10, Note 43 (pages 208 and 274)

By 1979, when Guadalupe Yaquis faced the decision of whether or not to enroll in the new Pascua Yaqui Tribe, they had surmounted various challenges and had a unique Guadalupe Yaqui character. (p. 208)

Chapter 10, Note 43 . . . for extensive sources on public perceptions of Guadalupe, internal debates over political actions, the processes of community organizing and incorporation, and community identity. (p. 274)

Increased public awareness of Yaquis in Arizona during the debates surrounding the H.R. 6233 and federal recognition campaigns likewise cast light on parallel issues in Guadalupe during the 1960s and 1970s.[1] Painted in the broadest strokes, Guadalupe Yaquis fought tenaciously for their community, children’s education, and cultural pride. They formed the Guadalupe Organization as a public political arm for their advocacy. Their work in education cases was particularly noteworthy. In the early 1970s, a court case concerning a fired Yaqui elementary school teacher highlighted the disjointed integration with the surrounding Mexican and Anglo community as well as their persistence in asserting pride in their culture and history. . In January 1972, the Guadalupe Organization filed lawsuit against Tempe Elementary School District No. 3, charging discrimination against Yaqui and Mexican children. In the end, the Guadalupe Organization won their lawsuit and Yaquis were desegregated in their schools. [2]

However, the Guadalupe Organization was not universally accepted by Salt River Valley Yaquis as disputes arose over its purpose, tactics, who it represented and so forth. They did succeed in securing funds from various sources to support community measures in the town.[3] In 1975, Guadalupe was incorporated as an Arizona town, and the new city government structure offered opportunity and challenges for Yaquis to participate with their Mexican and Anglo neighbors. By 1979, when Guadalupe Yaquis faced the decision of whether or not to enroll in the new Pascua Yaqui Tribe, they had passed to unique challenges. Many, they felt, had forged a unique Guadalupe Yaqui character as well.[4]

[1] For information on public portrayal of Guadalupe during and after H.R. 6233 see Mitzi Zipf, “New Goals for Guadalupe, Yaqui Townsite on 56th St.,” Arizona Republic, September 1, 1963; Mitzi Zipf, “Yaqui Life Little Changed Since Guadalupe Founding,” Arizona Republic, September 2, 1963; Mitzi Zipf, “Guadalupe Residents Seek Community Improvements,” Arizona Republic, September 3, 1963; Janette T. Harrington, “New Hope for a Desert Town,” Presbyterian Life (August 15, 1965): 1-9; and Anthony Ripley, “Yaquis of Arizona Dwell in a Town That is Not a Town,” New York Times, December 29, 1970.

[2] See “Guadalupe Teacher Charges Retaliation,” Arizona Republic, August 18, 1971, 26; “Bernasconi was Told of New Position,” Tempe Daily News, August 18, 1971, 1; and “District 3 Statement Criticized,” Tempe Daily News, August 19, 1971, 1; and “‘It’s the Law, We’ll Obey’ Says TD3,” Tempe Daily News, July 18, 1973. For information on these struggles, reports conducting among Yaqui students and information on the lawsuit, see Cecilia Teyechea Denogean de Esquer Papers (Esquer Papers), Chicano Research Collection, MSS-132, ASUA, Box 30, Folder 10. For a variety of correspondence on Guadalupe’s political activities and community advocacy, see Fannin Papers, AHF, Box 91/48, Folders 9-12.

[3] For a sampling of the tensions between various parties concerning the Guadalupe Organization see Guadalupe Organization, “Donde Nacen Las Culturas,” October 1970; Guadalupe Organization, “Incorporated: Program Possibilities,” July 13, 1970; Laura Garcia, Jr., GO Director, “A Summary of the GO – MCCAA (Maricopa County Community Action Agency) Western Region/Office of Economic Opportunity Controversy; OEO Press Release on Guadalupe Organization funding, April 23, 1970; Arizona Yaqui Band of Indians to Rev. Leroy Albo (Chairman, County Services Commission), December 17, 1970; J. Molina, Secretary of the Guadalupe Council of the Arizona Yaqui Band of Indians to Benjamin Salt (Legal Aid Society), December 21, 1970, Paul Fannin Papers, ASUA, FM MSS 2, Series 3, Box 48, Folder 9; Bruce Kipp, “Antipoverty Group Face Funding Cut,” The Phoenix Gazette, May 29, 1969; Albert J. Sitter, “Guadalupe May Lose Poverty Funds,” June 6, 1969; Albert J. Sitter, The Arizona Republic, January 1, 1970; and “GO Supporters Vote Down citizen committee Proposal,” Tempe Daily News, March 31, 1970.

[4] See Robert McEwen, “A Town with an Open Heart: Yaquis know squalor, pride,” Tucson Citizen, December 17, 1979, 6C; Robert McEwen, “Guadalupe is proud of its history,” Prescott Courier, December 19, 1979; Robert McEwen, “‘They throw us crumbs’: Yaquis in Guadalupe point to economic discrimination,” Tucson Citizen, December 19, 1979.